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forged ration books and birth certificates, typewriters, blueprints for attacks on trains and dozens of torn postcards, train timetables and tickets, the missing halves destined. Then there was Marie-Claude Vaillant-Couturier, Femme Tricanet, niece of the creator of the Babar stories and contributor to the clandestine edition. The policeman, not knowing who she was, christened her Femme Buisson-St-Louis after a nearby métro station; Pican became Buisson. When, over the next days and weeks, those who had fled south in a river of cars, bicycles, hay wagons, furniture vans, ice-cream carts, hearses and horse-drawn drays, dragging behind them prams, wheelbarrows and herds of animals, returned, they. By the middle of February, Pican and his contacts had become visibly nervous, constantly looking over their shoulders to see if they were being followed. The Germans, for their part, were astonished by the French passivity.

She thought of herself as a messenger, bearing the story of her former companions. At three oclock on the morning of 15 February, sixty police inspectors set out across Paris to make their arrests. And what they all went through, month after month, lay at the very outer limits of human endurance. Husbands said that they had no idea what their wives did all day, mothers that they had not seen their sons in months. The Germans would control the Atlantic and Channel coasts and all areas of important heavy industry, and have the right to large portions of French raw materials. And when they had stopped staring, the Parisians returned to their homes and waited to see what would happen.

Despite the growing xenophobia, many foreigners remained in France; but now, in an atmosphere of uncertainty and hostility, they were stateless, without protection and extremely vulnerable. The burning of sackfuls of state archives and papers in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, carried out as the Germans arrived, was inconvenient, but not excessively so, as much had been salvaged. After watching a film in Le Palais des Glaces cinema, Pican and Femme Buisson were seen to buy biscuits and oysters before parting on the rue Saint-Maur. From his sumptuous embassy in the rue de Lille, Abetz embarked on collaboration with a light touch. The children, some now in their seventies, produce letters, photographs, diaries. In the hours after the arrival of the occupiers, sixteen people committed suicide, the best known of them Thierry de Martel, inventor in France of neurosurgery, who had fought at Gallipoli. On paper at least, it was not a German puppet but a legal, sovereign state with diplomatic relations. According to a new census, there were around 330,000 Jews living in France in 1940, of which only half were French nationals, the others having arrived as a result of waves of persecution across Europe. As the days passed, each arrest led to others.

By now, Pican had also met and exchanged packets with Femme Brunet St Lazare (34,.60m, very dark, pointed nose, beige coat, hood lined in a patterned red, yellow and green material and with Femme Claude Tillier (1.65m, 33, dark, somewhat. Others, when confronted by Rottées men, shouted for help, struggled, and tried to run off; two women bit the inspectors. Charlotte Delbo, I discover, died of cancer in 1985. Those who preferred not to follow him scrambled to leave Franceover the border into Spain and Switzerland or across the Channeland began to group together as the Free French with French nationals from the African colonies who had argued against a negotiated surrender to Germany. Some eight million of them were still on the roads to the south, though by now the traffic was crawling the other way, back towards their homes in the north. The coats of the horses pulling the cannons glowed. This is a book about friendship between women, and the importance that they attach to intimacy and to looking after each other, and about how, under conditions of acute hardship and danger, such mutual dependency can make the difference between living and dying.

...

The German mark was fixed at almost twice its pre-war level. On the 20th, a grande action saw the windows of Jewish shops in the Champs-Elysées stoned. In the following days, Pican met Motte Piquet, Porte Souleau and Femme. Paris remained eerily silent, not least because the oily black cloud that had enveloped the city after the bombing of the huge petrol dumps in the Seine estuary had wiped out most of the bird population. Since Paris had been declared an open city there was no destruction. At.30 on the 17th, Pétain, his thin, crackling voice reminding Arthur Koestler of a skeleton with a chill, announced over the radio that he had agreed to head a new government and that he was asking Germany for an armistice. Not far away, in the Hotel Crillon in the rue de Rivoli, General von Sturnitz was busy overseeing day to day life in the capital.

Returning from meeting Hitler at Montoire on 24 October, Pétain declared: With honour, and to maintain French unity I am embarking today on the path of collaboration. There were also the counter-terrorism men of the Abwehr, who reported back to Admiral Canaris in Berlin; the Einsatzstab Rosenberg which ferreted out Masonic lodges and secret societies and looted valuable art to be sent off to Germany, and Goebbelss propaganda specialists. At this stage in the war, the Germans were less interested in arresting the Jews in the occupied zone than in getting rid of them by sending them to the free zone, though Pétain was no less determined not to have them. Hitler, who paid a lightning visit on 28 June, was photographed slapping his knee in delight under the Eiffel Tower. But it was not only the Jews who attracted the interest of von Stülpnagel and his men.

From November, a powerful black market in food, writing paper, electric wire, buttons and cigarettes operated in Les Halles. This is their story, that of Cécile, Betty, Poupette, Madeleine and the 226 other women who were with them on what became known. I have trouble finding Poupette Alizon, who has drifted away from the others and is estranged from her daughters. Grand Peur that had driven the French from their homes in the early days of the revolution of 1797. What of those well leave behind? On 12 February, Femme Buisson was seen to enter the Café au Balcon, where she was handed a small suitcase by Merilmontant a short woman in her mid-thirties,. Long before they reached Paris, the Germans had been preparing for the occupation of France. Nor was it easy to learn much about the outside world.

But each watched out for the others with the same degree of attention and concern and minded every death with anguish. However Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler, the myopic, thin-lipped 40-year-old Chief of the German Police, who had long dreamt of breeding a master race of Nordic Ayrans, did not wish to see his black-shirted SS excluded. In practice, editors had been issued with a long list of words and topics to avoid, from Anglo-Americans to Alsace-Lorraine, while the words Austria, Poland, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia were never to be used at all, since as countries they no longer existed. Over the next two weeks, they searched the streets of Paris in vain. After commandeering a house on the avenue Foch with his team of experts in anti-terrorism and Jewish affairs, he called on the Paris Prefecture, where he demanded to be given the dossiers on all German émigrés, all Jews, and all known anti-Nazis.

Though it had rained hard on the 13th, the unseasonal great heat of early June had returned. A German flag was hoisted over the Arc de Triomphe, and swastikas raised over the Hôtel de Ville, the Chamber of Deputies, the Senate and the various ministries. I wonder if any are still alive, to tell the story of what drew them into the Resistance, of how they came to fall into the hands of Rottées men, and what battles they and their companions fought to survive, then and later. A few resigned; most chose not to think, but just to obey orders; but there were others for whom the German occupation would prove a step to rapid promotion. Poupette, at 83 somewhat younger than the others and in her long flowing lilac coat as elegant as her surroundings, seems troubled and a bit defiant. The 15,000 men originally working for the Paris police were told to resume their jobs, shadowed by men of the Feldkommandatur.

The faces, Delbo wrote in her stage instructions, do not count; what counted was their common experience. Rottée began to fear that they might be planning to flee. On the walls of her lycée. The French had other things on their mind. After the protests of a number of his generals about the behaviour of the Gestapo in Poland, Hitler had agreed that no SS security police would accompany the invading troops into France. The word ersatz entered the everyday vocabulary of Paris, housewives exchanging tips and recipes as they queued interminably for ever-dwindling supplies. Von Ribbentrop, the Minister for Foreign Affairs in Berlin, had also persuaded Hitler to let him send one of his own men to Paris, Otto Abetz, a Francophile who had courted the French during the 1930s with plans for Franco-German co-operation. He followed him and watched as he stopped to talk to a thickset man in his thirties, with a bony face and a large moustache. With each day that passed, his stern, measured voice gained authority.

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Relieved that they would not have to fight, disgusted by the British bombing of the French fleet at anchor in the Algerian port of Mers-el-Kebir, warmed by the thought of their heroic fatherly leader, most French people were happy to join him. Then, on 21 January, an inspector carrying out a surveillance of the Café du Rond near the Porte dOrléans thought he saw a man answering to Picans description. The French, who had feared the savagery that had accompanied the invasion of Poland, were relieved. Rottées men stayed close. On 14 February, Pican and Femme Brunet were seen buying tickets at the Gare Montparnasse annunci escort sassari bacheka incontri bari for a train the following morning to Le Mans, and then arranging for three large suitcases to travel with them in the goods wagon. Few had been able to take in the fact that a nation whose military valour was epitomised by the battle of Verdun in the First World War and whose defences had been guaranteed by the supposedly impregnable Maginot.

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shemale française escort nantes Soup kitchens had been set up by the Germans in various parts of Paris, and under the flowering chestnut trees in the Jardin des Tuileries, military bands played Beethoven. Then there were the Spanish republicans, fleeing Franco at the end of the civil war, of whom some 100,000 were still in France, many of them living in appalling hardship behind barbed wire in camps near the Spanish border. The police picked up journalists and university lecturers, farmers and shopkeepers, concierges and electricians, chemists and postmen and teachers and secretaries.
Sono sposato cerco un amante puebla incontri rn She is unsmiling and totally contained. In 2008, I decide to go in search of the women who had left Paris, that freezing January dawn sixty-five years earlier. Surviving, she says, is something that she is very good. Germans were to take control of the telephone exchange and, in due course, of the railways, but the utilities would remain in French hands. Initial relief at the politeness of the German occupiers was rapidly giving way to unease and a growing uncertainty about how, given that the war showed no signs of ending, they were going to survive economically.
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But seven of the women are still alive. All through the 1920s and 1930s the country had never distinguished between its citizens on the basis of race or religion. Soon, Paris clattered to the sound of clogs and horse-drawn carts. Lulu Thévenin, Gilberte Tamisé and Geneviève Pakula, cose sporche da fare a letto badoo sito incontri all three alive in 2008, I cannot see: they are too frail to welcome visitors. Abetz was 37, a genial, somewhat stout man, who had once been an art master, and though recognised to be charming and to love France, was viewed by both French and Germans with suspicion, not least because his somewhat ambiguous instructions. They are barely distinguishable one from another, all equally grey in their ragged and shapeless clothes, their hair and features purposefully unmemorable.